- Introduction ::ItalyBackground:Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC). It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.Geography ::ItalyLocation:Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of TunisiaGeographic coordinates:42 50 N, 12 50 EArea:total: 301,340 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 72land: 294,140 sq kmwater: 7,200 sq kmnote: includes Sardinia and SicilyArea - comparative:slightly larger than ArizonaLand boundaries:total: 1,899.2 kmborder countries: Austria 430 km, France 488 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.2 km, San Marino 39 km, Slovenia 199 km, Switzerland 740 kmCoastline:7,600 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontinental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitationClimate:predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry in southTerrain:mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlandsElevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 mhighest point: Mont Blanc (Monte Bianco) de Courmayeur 4,748 m (a secondary peak of Mont Blanc)Natural resources:coal, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable landLand use:arable land: 22.57%permanent crops: 8.37%other: 69.07% (2011)Irrigated land:39,510 sq km (2007)Total renewable water resources:191.3 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 45.41 cu km/yr (24%/43%/34%)per capita: 789.8 cu m/yr (2008)Natural hazards:regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venicevolcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (elev. 3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed ""Decade Volcanoes"" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and VulsiniEnvironment - current issues:air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilitiesEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whalingsigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western EuropePeople and Society ::ItalyNationality:noun: Italian(s)adjective: ItalianEthnic groups:Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)Languages:Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)Religions:Christian 80% (overwhelming Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehova Witnesses and Protestants), Muslims NEGL (about 700,000 but growing), Atheists and Agnostics 20%Population:61,482,297 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 23Age structure:0-14 years: 13.8% (male 4,335,746/female 4,148,249)15-24 years: 9.9% (male 3,059,140/female 3,035,991)25-54 years: 43.2% (male 13,133,733/female 13,416,626)55-64 years: 12.3% (male 3,675,324/female 3,913,918)65 years and over: 20.8% (male 5,454,283/female 7,309,287) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 54.3 %youth dependency ratio: 21.7 %elderly dependency ratio: 32.6 %potential support ratio: 3.1 (2013)Median age:total: 44.2 yearsmale: 43 yearsfemale: 45.3 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:0.34% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Birth rate:8.94 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 210Death rate:10.01 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 51Net migration rate:4.47 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 24Urbanization:urban population: 68% of total population (2010)rate of urbanization: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:ROME (capital) 3.357 million; Milan 2.962 million; Naples 2.27 million; Turin 1.662 million; Palermo 872,000 (2009)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:27.7 (2010 est.)Maternal mortality rate:4 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 181Infant mortality rate:total: 3.33 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 216male: 3.54 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 3.12 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 81.95 yearscountry comparison to the world: 11male: 79.32 yearsfemale: 84.73 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.41 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 203Contraceptive prevalence rate:62.7%note: percent of women aged 20-49 (1995/96)Health expenditures:9.5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 34Physicians density:4.24 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:3.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 83HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:140,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 34HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 75Obesity - adult prevalence rate:19.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 97Education expenditures:4.7% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 87Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 99%male: 99.2%female: 98.7% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 16 yearsmale: 16 yearsfemale: 17 years (2010)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 29.1%country comparison to the world: 28male: 27.1%female: 32% (2011)Government ::ItalyCountry name:conventional long form: Italian Republicconventional short form: Italylocal long form: Repubblica Italianalocal short form: Italiaformer: Kingdom of ItalyGovernment type:republicCapital:name: Romegeographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 Etime difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma)regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto (Venetia)autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)Independence:17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)National holiday:Republic Day, 2 June (1946)Constitution:passed 11 December 1947, effective 1 January 1948; amended many timesLegal system:civil law system; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional CourtInternational law organization participation:has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universal (except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25)Executive branch:chief of state: President Giorgio NAPOLITANO (since 15 May 2006)head of government: Prime Minister Enrico LETTA (since 17 April 2013); note - the prime minister is referred to as the President of the Council of Ministerscabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister and nominated by the President of the Republic(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of parliament and 58 regional representatives for a seven-year term (no term limits); election last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2020); prime minister appointed by the president and confirmed by parliament; note - elections were held in February, but resulted in a political stalemate to be determined by formal talks beginning in March; by mid-April 2013 no governing coaliton has been formed; on 18 April 2013 indirect elections for president were begun; on the sixth round Giorgio NAPOLITANO was elected president with 739 voteselection results: Giorgio NAPOLITANO elected president on the sixth round of voting; electoral college vote - 739Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of the Senate or Senato della Repubblica (315 seats; members elected by proportional vote with the winning coalition in each region receiving 55% of seats from that region; members to serve five-year terms; and up to 5 senators for life appointed by the president of the Republic) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; members elected by popular vote with the winning national coalition receiving 54% of chamber seats; members to serve five-year terms); note - it has not been clarified if each president has the power to designate up to five senators or if five is the number of senators for life who might sit in the Senateelections: Senate - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 24-25 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Pier Luigi BERSANI coalition 123 (PD 111, SEL 7, SVP 2, other 3), Silvio BERLUSCONI coalition 117 (PdL 98, LN 18, other 1), M5S 54, Mario MONTI coalition 19, other 2; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Pier Luigi BERSANI coalition 345 (PD 297, SEL 37, CD 6 SVP 5), Silvio BERLUSCONI coalition 125 (PdL 98, LN 18, FdI 9), M5S 109, Mario MONTI coalition 47, other 4; note - President NAPOLITANO dissolved Parliament on 22 December 2012Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione (organized into penal, civil, administrative, and military divisions, each with a president and several judges); Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of 15 judges)judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the Superior Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president, to serve NA terms; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years)subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, courts, and courts of appeal)Political parties and leaders:Center-right coalition [Silvio BERLUSCONI]:People of Freedom or PdL [Silvio BERLUSCONI]Northern League or LN [Roberto MARONI]Brothers of Italy or Fdl [Giorgia MELONI and Ignazio LA RUSSA]The Right or LD [Francesco STORACE]other minor partiesItaly Common Good (Center-Left) [Pier Luigi BERSANI]:Democratic Party or PD [Pier Luigi BERSANI]Left Ecology Freedom or SEL [Nichi VENDOLA]Italian Socialist Party or PSI [Riccardo NENCINI]Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI and Massimo DONADI]South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Luis DURNWALDER]With Monti for Italy (Centrist):Civic Choice or SC [Mario MONTI]Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI]Future and Freedom for Italy or FLI [Gianfranco FINI]other coalitions and parties:Civil Revolution or RC [Antonio INGROIA]Act to Stop the Decline or FiD [Oscar GIANNINO]Five Star Movment or M5S [Beppe GRILLO]Political pressure groups and leaders:manufacturers and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustriaorganized farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Churchthree major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing; Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centristInternational organization participation:ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCDiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Claudio BISOGNIEROchancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 612-4400FAX:  (202) 518-2154consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Franciscoconsulate(s): Detroit, Newark (NJ), San FranciscoDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador David THORNEembassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Romemailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624telephone:  (06) 46741FAX:  (06) 4674-2244consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, NaplesFlag description:three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; design inspired by the French flag brought to Italy by Napoleon in 1797; colors are those of Milan (red and white) combined with the green uniform color of the Milanese civic guardnote: similar to the flag of Mexico, which is longer, uses darker shades of red and green, and has its coat of arms centered on the white band; Ireland, which is longer and is green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Cote d'Ivoire, which has the colors reversed - orange (hoist side), white, and greenNational symbol(s):white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia)National anthem:name: ""Il Canto degli Italiani"" (The Song of the Italians)lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVAROnote: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as ""L'Inno di Mameli"" (Mameli's Hymn), and ""Fratelli D'Italia"" (Brothers of Italy)Economy ::ItalyEconomy - overview:Italy has a diversified industrial economy, which is divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, where unemployment is high. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro-zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, topping 126% of GDP in 2012, and investor concerns about the broader euro-zone crisis at times have caused borrowing costs on sovereign government debt to rise to euro-era records. During the second half of 2011 the government passed three austerity packages to reduce its budget deficit and help bring down borrowing costs. These measures included a hike in the value-added tax, pension reforms, and cuts to public administration. The government also faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its recent efforts to address Italy's long-standing structural impediments to growth, such as labor market inefficiencies and widespread tax evasion. In 2012 economic growth and labor market conditions deteriorated, with growth at -2.3% and unemployment rising to nearly 11%, with youth unemployment around 35%. The government has undertaken several reform initiatives designed to increase long-term economic growth. Italy's GDP is now 7% below its 2007 pre-crisis level.GDP (purchasing power parity):$1.863 trillion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 11$1.908 trillion (2011 est.)$1.901 trillion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$2.014 trillion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:-2.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 2110.4% (2011 est.)1.7% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$30,600 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 48$31,500 (2011 est.)$31,500 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:16.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 9116.5% of GDP (2011 est.)16.4% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 60.7%government consumption: 20.5%investment in fixed capital: 18.2%investment in inventories: -0.6%exports of goods and services: 30.3%imports of goods and services: -29.1%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 2%industry: 24.2%services: 73.8% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fishIndustries:tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramicsIndustrial production growth rate:-4.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 162Labor force:25.65 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 25Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 3.9%industry: 28.3%services: 67.8% (2011)Unemployment rate:10.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1148.4% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:19.6% (2011)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2.3%highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)Distribution of family income - Gini index:31.9 (2011)country comparison to the world: 10727.3 (1995)Budget:revenues: $972.5 billionexpenditures: $1.034 trillion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:48.3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 17Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-3% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 115Public debt:127% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 7120.8% of GDP (2011 est.)note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the central government, state government, local government and social security fundsFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):3.3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1032.9% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:1.5% (31 December 2012)country comparison to the world: 1301.75% (31 December 2010)note: this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro areaCommercial bank prime lending rate:5.22% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1624.6% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$1.161 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6$1.147 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)note: see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own bordersStock of broad money:$1.944 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 9$1.957 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$3.435 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8$3.209 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$431.5 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 27$318.1 billion (31 December 2010)$317.3 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:-$30.3 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 184-$71.87 billion (2011 est.)Exports:$478.9 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 10$503.1 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; food, beverages and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metalsExports - partners:Germany 12.8%, France 11.3%, US 6.6%, Switzerland 5.8%, UK 5%, Spain 4.8% (2012)Imports:$453.5 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 13$524 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, and tobaccoImports - partners:Germany 15.7%, France 8.9%, China 7%, Netherlands 5.8%, Spain 4.8%, Belgium 4.1% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$181.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 16$173.3 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$2.493 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8$2.35 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$453.7 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 17$436.2 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$661.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 12$617 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:euros (EUR) per US dollar -0.7778 (2012 est.)0.7185 (2011 est.)0.755 (2010 est.)0.7198 (2009 est.)0.6827 (2008 est.)Energy ::ItalyElectricity - production:302.6 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Electricity - consumption:313.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 13Electricity - exports:1.787 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 43Electricity - imports:47.52 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 2Electricity - installed generating capacity:122.3 million kW (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 8Electricity - from fossil fuels:65% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 127Electricity - from nuclear fuels:0% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 111Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:18% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 96Electricity - from other renewable sources:15.8% of total installed capacity (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 9Crude oil - production:99,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 49Crude oil - exports:6,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 60Crude oil - imports:1.591 million bbl/day (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 7Crude oil - proved reserves:523.2 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 50Refined petroleum products - production:1.887 million bbl/day (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 12Refined petroleum products - consumption:1.454 million bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 16Refined petroleum products - exports:628,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 11Refined petroleum products - imports:393,300 bbl/day (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 14Natural gas - production:8.364 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Natural gas - consumption:77.83 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 11Natural gas - exports:123 million cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 45Natural gas - imports:70.37 billion cu m (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 5Natural gas - proved reserves:66 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 61Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:416.4 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 15Communications ::ItalyTelephones - main lines in use:22.116 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 13Telephones - mobile cellular:96.005 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 11Telephone system:general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data servicesdomestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunksinternational: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), and NA Eutelsat (2011)Broadcast media:two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; some 1,300 commercial radio stations (2007)Internet country code:.itInternet hosts:25.662 million (2012)country comparison to the world: 4Internet users:29.235 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 13Transportation ::ItalyAirports:129 (2013)country comparison to the world: 45Airports - with paved runways:total: 98over 3,047 m: 92,438 to 3,047 m: 311,524 to 2,437 m: 18914 to 1,523 m: 29under 914 m: 11 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 311,524 to 2,437 m: 1914 to 1,523 m: 10under 914 m:20 (2013)Heliports:5 (2013)Pipelines:gas 20,223 km; oil 1,393 km; refined products 1,574 km (2013)Railways:total: 20,255 kmcountry comparison to the world: 13standard gauge: 18,611 km 1.435-m gauge (12,662 km electrified)narrow gauge: 123 km 1.000-m gauge (123 km electrified); 1,290 km 0.950-m gauge (151 km electrified); 231 km 0.850-m gauge (2008)Roadways:total: 487,700 kmcountry comparison to the world: 14paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)Waterways:2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)country comparison to the world: 37Merchant marine:total: 681country comparison to the world: 17by type: bulk carrier 105, cargo 42, carrier 1, chemical tanker 164, container 21, liquefied gas 28, passenger 25, passenger/cargo 154, petroleum tanker 59, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 39, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 30foreign-owned: 90 (Denmark 4, France 2, Greece 7, Luxembourg 14, Netherlands 2, Nigeria 1, Norway 6, Singapore 1, Sweden 1, Switzerland 13, Taiwan 10, Turkey 4, UK 2, US 23)registered in other countries: 201 (Bahamas 1, Belize 3, Cayman Islands 7, Cyprus 6, Georgia 2, Gibraltar 4, Greece 5, Liberia 47, Malta 45, Marshall Islands 1, Morocco 1, Netherlands 6, Panama 25, Portugal 12, Russia 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 4, Singapore 5, Slovakia 2, Spain 1, Sweden 5, Turkey 1, UK 3, unknown 1) (2010)Ports and terminals:Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Veniceoil terminals: Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminalMilitary ::ItalyMilitary branches:Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC) (2011)Military service age and obligation:18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 12-month service obligation (2013)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 13,865,688females age 16-49: 14,003,755 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 11,247,446females age 16-49: 11,348,695 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 288,188female: 281,671 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:1.8% of GDP (2005 est.)country comparison to the world: 76Transnational Issues ::ItalyDisputes - international:Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern AfricaRefugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 11,345 (Eritrea); 9,284 (Somalia); 5,058 (Afghanistan) (2012)stateless persons: 470 (2012)Illicit drugs:important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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Italy — • In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; Enotria, wine producing land; Ausonia, land of the Ausonians; Hesperia, land to the west (of Greece); Tyrrhenia, etc. The name Italy, which seems to… … Catholic encyclopedia
Italy — Italy became a fully unified state only after 1870. To this point Italy had been divided into numerous medieval states that lost their independence in the early modern period. When Napoleon crossed the Alps seeking military glory, he brought… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Italy — es el nombre en inglés de Italia y también puede referirse a: Italy (Nueva York), pueblo ubicado en el condado de Yates en el estado estadounidense de Nueva York. Italy (Texas), pueblo ubicado en el condado de Ellis en el estado estadounidense de … Wikipedia Español
Italy — (englisch für Italien) steht für folgende US amerikanische Gemeinden: Italy (New York) im Yates County im Bundesstaat New York Italy (Texas) im Ellis County im Bundesstaat Texas Siehe auch: Wiktionary: Italy – Bedeutungserklärungen,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Italy — Italy, TX U.S. town in Texas Population (2000): 1993 Housing Units (2000): 731 Land area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km)… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Italy, TX — U.S. town in Texas Population (2000): 1993 Housing Units (2000): 731 Land area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.793563 sq. miles (4.645306 sq. km) FIPS code … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Italy — from L. Italia, from Gk. Italia, perhaps from an alteration of Oscan Viteliu Italy, but originally only the southwestern point of the peninsula, traditionally from Vitali, name of a tribe that settled in Calabria, whose name is perhaps somehow… … Etymology dictionary
Italy — [it′ l ē] [L Italia, altered, prob. by Greeks living in S Italy < earlier (prob. Oscan) Víteliú; orig. used only of the SW point of the peninsula] country in S Europe, mostly on a peninsula extending into the Mediterranean & including Sicily,… … English World dictionary
Italy — /it l ee/, n. a republic in S Europe, comprising a peninsula S of the Alps, and Sicily, Sardinia, Elba, and other smaller islands: a kingdom 1870 1946. 57,534,088; 116,294 sq. mi. (301,200 sq. km). Cap.: Rome. Italian, Italia. * * * Italy… … Universalium
Italy — Italia redirects here. For other uses, see Italia (disambiguation). This article is about the republic. For other uses, see Italy (disambiguation). Italian Republic … Wikipedia
ITALY — Jews have lived in Italy without interruption from the days of the Maccabees until the present, through a period of 21 centuries. Although they were never subjected to general expulsion, there were frequently partial ones. They often enjoyed good … Encyclopedia of Judaism